We all know about quantum physics, right? In other words, we have at least heard of it because saying I know the answer to the question of what is quantum physics is like saying I have solved the secret of the universe. For those who are curious, we answered the question of what is quantum physics in the simplest way and explained the details you need to know about the subject.
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Especially in recent years, the concept of quantum has become ubiquitous. We are used to seeing something about quantum physics in science fiction works, but we also see that it is distorted for popular purposes by approaching this branch of science from different angles. Yes, quantum physics is a science. Moreover, it is not an area that can be solved by reading a few books. Studies on the subject date back to a hundred years ago.
There is no short and clear answer to the question of what is quantum physics, but there are some basic principles that should be known about the subject. Scientists are also working on these basic principles and are trying to solve the mysterious world of the quantum. Let’s take a closer look at the question of what is quantum physics and see what we can learn about the field of study of this branch of science in the light of the basic principles put forward by scientists.
What is quantum physics?
As we said, it is difficult to give a clear answer to this question, but basically, quantum physics; It is a science that studies the behavior of matter and light at the atomic and even subatomic level. Quantum physics also observes the movements of particles such as electrons, quarks, protons, neutrons and gluons with each other and under the influence of light, x-rays and gamma rays.
Quantum physics studies that started with Albert Einstein: Although he has many studies on the subject, the main field of the famous scientist Albert Einstein is physics, not quantum physics. Einstein’s theory of relativity, or relativity, which revolutionized the field of physics, evaluates the laws of physics within the framework of the space-time relationship in unchanging patterns. This situation is completely against quantum physics.
Everything that happens in quantum physics, as we know it now, is random. In other words, no one knows exactly what is going on, which is considered the opposite of the theory of relativity. Quantum physics studies started in the same period with Albert Einstein’s theory and four basic principles were put forward. These;
German physicist Max Planck developed an equation to describe the distribution of colors on a given spectrum in a work he did in 1900. With this equation, which we know as Planck’s Constant today, light was quantified, that is, it became mathematical. This showed that light behaved like a wave contrary to what was known. In the following years, quantifying physical properties became one of the main principles of quantum physics.
Albert Einstein published an article in 1905 in which he argued that light is not a wave but a kind of energy quantum. In this article, it is mentioned that every atom can jump as a whole. In the following years, when the amount of energy obtained by this jump was divided by the Planck Constant, it was determined that the color of this bounced light emerged. The particles of light we call photons today show us that light can be both a wave and a particle. Just like all things in the quantum field.
After the discovery of the electron in 1896, it was accepted that the atom has a particulate structure. However, when it was revealed that light could be a wave, scientists wondered whether this situation also applies to atoms, and they conducted studies on the subject.
Studies conducted by different scientists over the years have shown that the atom makes a wave motion around its nucleus. This situation paved the way for the view of evaluating everything as waves and particles in quantum physics, was accepted as one of the most important principles and formed the field of quantum chemistry.
Even if there are some constants like Planck’s Constant, the most fundamental principle of quantum physics is uncertainty. So much so that even if we know the exact position and velocity of an electron, we may not actually know it exactly. This uncertainty principle, which is somewhat confusing, also paves the way for parallel universe theories. That is, an object can exist in two different places at the same time.
The theory, called Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, is much more successful on small objects. While quantum physics detects the position of an atom much more successfully, the precision required to detect the position of a baseball is 0.0000000000000000000000000000008
millimeters. In short, things are pretty complicated.
Quantum physics, at least for now, does not work on objects that we encounter in daily life. We can see the field we call quantum as a different world. The laws of physics we know do not operate in this area.